RR Crossing

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THE JERSEY CENTRAL Train History

CNJ 851 CNJ 56 CNJ 1554 CNJ 2503 CNJ 3067

Antimated TrainCNJ

SECTION 1: TRAINS AND SERVICES OF THE JERSEY CENTRAL

As the tiny Elizabethtown and Somerville became the Central of New Jersey and extended its lines by construction and acquisition, so did its operations and services develop. Arrangements with other roads made it the tidewater outlet in the New York Harbor for these roads. Thus became a terminal road early in its existence, a status it maintains.

During the great railroad building years of the late 1800's some of the connecting lines built and acquired their own parallel roads to tidewater. The CNJ leased the Lehigh and Susquehanna, thus securing its own entry to the anthracite fields of eastern Pennsylvania.

These changes altered the traffic pattern from time to time, and immediate results of some of them nearly produced financial disaster. However, new connections were made and the Jersey Central remains today, furnishing entry to New York for the Reading a nd the Baltimore and Ohio railroads. It also forms part of the so-called 'inside' route between the Mid-west and New England. It is also part of one important route between the Delaware Valley and the Great Lakes. A large local service is also perform ed in its own territory.

Commuting service is a large and costly item of local operation. There are current prospects for easing this financial burden by establishing new connections and improving the service; we sincerely hope that some feasible long-term plan will be put in op eration in a reasonably short time.

Passenger trains, being more colorful, are more noticeable and generally better known. Freight trains follow a similar pattern except that their cars have to be switched from train to train at junctions, whereas the passenger himself may walk from car to car, even at places where no track connection exists. The switching of freight takes place in yards which are not generally accessible to public view. Consequently, few other than persons directly involved, know the details of freight car classification and interchange.

The first recorded instance of Jersey Central through-car service began in 1848 when connection was made at Elizabeth with the New Jersey Railroad (now PRR). Connection was made at Phillipsburg with the Lehigh Valley RR in 1855 which permitted through trains to run between Elizabethport and Mauch Chunk. The DL&W connection at Hampton, made in 1857, permitted coal in Lackawanna cars to move to Elizabethport. Reportedly, the CNJ was dual gauge from Hampton to Elizabethport, and hauled DL&W 6' gauge cars along this stretch.

Next came the first through route from New York to the West. Through trains ran via the New Jersey RR to Elizabeth; Jersey Central to Phillipsburg; Lehigh Valley to Allentown; Allentown Road(RDG) to Harrisburg; Pennsylvania to Pittsburgh.

Connection at Elizabeth was discontinued when Jersey Central road to Jersey City was opened in 1864. The Lehigh Valley connection gave way to its own Easton and Amboy RR in 1875. The DL&W leased the Morris & Essex and in 1871 Hampton was reduced to a branch line junction point with diversion of coal to that line at Washington,NJ.

Quite obviously the Allentown route to the West became obsolete when in 1871 the Pennsylvania RR made its entry into New York by leasing the New Jersey RR and the Camden & Amboy RR. However, the service to Harrisburg continues today, though much curtailed. The Queen of the Valley and Harrisburg Special made this route famous for half a century. The Queen still runs--but minus its glamour,which included a parlor and cafe car.

When the Philadelphia & Reading acquired the Delaware & Bound Brook RR in 1879, connecting trains met at Bound Brook, furnishing service between New York and Philadelphia. Later, a joint through-train service was established in direct competition with the Pennsylvania RR. The ensuing rivalry brought forth a speed contest which ran nip and tuck for a number of years. High speed American--and Atlantic-type locomotives and the finest cars ran on the fastest schedules. Parlor and cafe cars were used on the hourly day trains, and the night train had a sleeper. This today is little more than a commuter and mail service.

Baltimore & Ohio passenger trains also ran over this route,starting in 1881 or earlier, using trackage of the Philadelphia,Wilmington & Baltimore (now PRR). After completion of its own road through Baltimore and to Philadelphia, the famous Royal Blue trains began running July 31, 1890, power and equipment being furnished by the three railroads.

This service, with changes in operating arrangements between the participants, continued until April, 1958, except from 1918 to 1926, when B&O trains ran to Penn Station in New York via Lehigh Valley RR from Bound Brook. Thus, commencing with deluxe equipment and ending with Diesel streamliners, it had used standard equipment in the interim.

The Scranton Flyers ran between Philadelphia and Scranton as a joint service via connection with the Reading at Bethlehem. They also made a crosstown hack connection with the Lackawanna at Scranton. A night counterpart, called 'The Mail', transferred the equipment, including a Philadelphia-Utica sleeper, with the Lackawanna at Taylor. The latter is the only remaining train in this service and the only passenger train to Wilkes-Barre, where its arrival and departure times in the wee hours are hardly an inducement to a sizable patronage.

The once extensive mainline local service is still running between New York and Allentown, including what is left of the 'Queen', and a commuters run with RDC cars.

Commuter trains are still very much in evidence east of Raritan,with two runs extending to Hampton in addition to the Allentown trip. The same may be said for service between New York and points on the New York and Long Branch RR.

Nearly all of the branch lines had passenger service until recent years. Today, shuttle service is run between Elizabethport and Newark and between Matawan and Atlantic Highlands. Through trains are run at commuting times on these branches and to Kearny over what remains of the Newark and New York branch.

The Raritan and Delaware Bay RR ran a New York-Philadelphia service. New York to Port Monmouth was by water and Atco to Camden was over the Camden and Atlantic RR with its ferry to Philadelphia. When this road became the New Jersey Southern, service was extended to Bridgton. Although there is no documentary evidence to prove the claim, I am sure that this service extended across the Delaware River by boat. Old timetables indicate a passenger service on the Baltimore and Delaware Bay RR when it was operated by the NJS. After completion of the NY&LB and acquisition by CNJ of the NJS,trains ran through between Jersey City and Atlantic City. These were re-equipped in 1929 with the first modern deluxe coaches and named 'The Blue Comet'. This may truly be considered the forerunner of the streamliners. These trains ran over Atlantic City RR track between Winslow Junction and Atlantic City.

'The Bullet' was another deluxe train of that era, running between New York and Wilkes Barre. 'The Williamsporter' was a through mail and sleeper train from New York to Williamsport via the Reading from Tamaqua. 'The Mermaid' was an earlier name-train which ran between Point Pleasant and Scranton during a few summers before and after World War I.

Being one of the Anthracite roads, the Jersey Central was prominent in that trade during its early operations. With the Lackawanna connection at Hampton and the Lehigh Valley at Phillipsburg, a large tonnage was hauled to tidewater and consumers in the local towns en route. A general freight business was simultaneously but more slowly developing. As participant in the early development of the through routes to the West, the beginnings were made for today's interchanges and routes.

When the connecting roads secured their own lines to tidewater, the Jersey Central leases its own line into the anthracite fields, thus securing its connections with other roads. Today, with anthracite nearly out of the picture, the general freight traffic is the road's life-blood.

The New Jersey Southern traffic at first consisted of farm produce and fish. Potato trains ran from Freehold and other points, and oyster trains ran from the shores of Delaware Bay. Sand trains ran from the sand pits of South Jersey. Iron mines located on the High Bridge Branch and its connection required ore trains. The through freight on that branch is still called 'The Ore Train' although little of its tonnage is ore. Cement from the Allentown region has long been a heavy tonnage item. At first it was bagged and shipped in box cars. Covered hopper cars have been provided by the railroad, which permit bulk shipment. These are also used for some kinds of ore, sand and other commodities which can be shipped in bulk but need protection.

The New York terminal on the Jersey side of the Hudson River makes a marine operation necessary. This was at first accomplished by transferring freight as well as passengers. Car floats were provided as early as 1867. These have been developed to move carloads directly to New York piers and to terminals which permit further rail movement in and beyond New York and Long Island.

Carfloat service is now a part of the fast freight schedule. The float yard and its supporting yards are busy places during late afternoon and evening as the fast freight cars are pulled from the floats and assembled into trains. This is the New York end of the B&O 'Time Saver' and other fast freight services in which the Jersey Central participates. Most of this B&O freight was formerly handled on Staten Island by the Staten Island Rapid Transit RR, connecting with CNJ at Cranford. As time became a recognized element in the early 1930's, the terminal work was transferred to Jersey City. Only that freight to and from the Island and Island piers now moves on the SIRT.

Most of this fast freight goes to the Reading at Bound Brook. Some goes CNJ to Allentown, then Reading and Western Maryland, thus by-passing Philadelphia and Baltimore. This 'inside' route is also used for freight between the Midwest and New England. From Allentown two routes to New England are used: (1) CNJ to Easton, Lehigh & Hudson River RR to Maybrook and the New Haven RR's Poughkeepsie Bridge Route: (2) CNJ to Wilkes-Barre, Delaware & Hudson RR to Schenectady and Boston & Maine RR. The D&H also reaches Montreal and its connections to eastern Canada. Then too, Philadelphia is connected to these New England gateways via the Reading to Allentown. The Jersey Central's Allentown yard is a focal point in the expeditious movement of all these services.

A sizable tonnage of bituminous coal comes to Allentown over this 'inside' route for movement to Jersey City. Facilities are used at Pier 18 which lift the cars and dump the coal directly into ships and barges for movement in New York Harbor.

While serving industries in the Dover area, the High Bridge branch and Wharton & Northern RR connects with the Susquehanna RR at Green Pond Junction, by which the CNJ and its other connections reach the Sea-train terminal at Weehawken.

In addition to the through train services, individual cars are also interchanged at those transfer points. Many other interchanges are operated with other roads. The principal ones are:

West Shore (NYC) from Jersey City via a branch of LVRR;
PRR and LVRR at Newark;
Rahway Valley RR at Aldene;
SIRT at Cranford;
Reading at Jersey City;
DL&W, LVRR, PRR and L&HR at Allentown;
Reading, L&NE and Philadelphia, LV, Bethlehem & New England at Bethlehem;
Reading and L&HR at Allentown;
Ironton RR at Catasauqua;
Northampton & Bath at Northampton;
Chestnut Ridge RR at Palmerton;
L&NE at Hauto;
Reading at Haucks and Tamaqua
LVRR, PRR, D&H and Erie in the WilkesİBarre Ashley area;
Dl&W at Taylor;
NYO&W at Scranton
LVRR at Perth Amboy;
PRR and Raritan River at South Amboy;
Penn-Reading Seashore Lines at Winslow Jet and Bridgeton Jct.
DL&W at Lake Junction.
NYS&W at Green Pond Junction.

In connection with the fast freight a piggyback service is operated. This is in two physical forms, one of which is called 'Tofcee' (trailer on flat car). In this system truck trailers are run onto flat cars and tied down. Under the other method, known as 'Trailer Train', truck bodies are lifted from their chassis and placed on flat cars. Some bridge clearances have been increased to permit passage of these higher loads.

SECTION 3: CONSTRUCTION AND ACQUISITION OF COMPONENT LINES

The Jersey Central is an assemblage of several small railroads. Some were built by or for the Central. Others were independently built and operated previous to acquisition by lease or purchase.

We will name and locate the components and show when they were constructed, and when and how they became parts of the Jersey Central system.

The earliest corporate title, the Elizabethport and New York Ferry Co., was established in 1818 and incorporated in 1839. It was needed as a connection between New York and the first rail line of the Jersey Central.

The Elizabethtown and Somerville RR was incorporated Feb. 9, 1831, and was opened between Elizabethport and Elizabeth Aug. 13, 1836, with a horse-drawn coach called the 'Town Car'. Steam operation to Plainfield began Jan. 1, 1839, and was extended to Bound Brook a year later. Service was extended to Somerville Jan. 2, 1842, thus completing the objective indicated by the corporate title.

The Somerville and Easton RR was incorporated in 1847 and opened to White House Sept. 25, 1848. Under a charter supplement, the S&E purchased the E&S and changed its name to The Central Railroad Company of New Jersey on April 23, 1849. Service was extended to Phillipsburg in 1852.

At this point we will sectionalize the growth separately for each of the three divisions -- namely, the Central Division, the Lehigh & Susquehanna Division (now Pennsylvania Division) and the New Jersey Southern Division (now included in the Central Division):

Central Division

The main line of the Central Division was completed in 1864 by extending the original railroad across Newark Bay from Elizabeth to Communipaw (Jersey City). The rest of this division consists of several branch lines.

The South Branch RR from Somerville to Flemington opened July 1,1864, and merged with the Jersey Central in 1888.

The Newark and New York Railroad was completed from Communipaw to Newark Aug. 2, 1869. Its operation by the Jersey Central began on that date although it did not become a part of the larger road until Oct. 10, 1873.

A branch was opened in 1872 from Elizabethport on the main line to Brills Junction on the N&NY. From a connection at Newark Transfer branches were built to serve many of Newark's industrial plants. The Manufacturers' Railroad was put in operation in 1882, Manufacturers' Extension in 1889 and Passaic River extension in 1916.

The Lafayette Railroad was built in 1890 and 1892 from Pacific Ave. on the N&NY RR to serve a number of Jersey City industries. From West Side Ave., the West Side Connecting Railroad was built to connect with industries in that section of Jersey City in 1895-6.

The Elizabeth Extension connected the N&E branch with industry in Elizabeth and provided service to the race track of the New Jersey Jockey Club. This was generally referred to as the Race Track Branch even though the race track has been all but forgotten for half a century. The aforementioned lines have been operated by the Central since their construction.

The Bay Shore Connecting Railroad was built in 1906 from Newark Transfer on the N&NY to a connection with the Lehigh Valley about-1/4 miles distant. It has been jointly operated since completion by the CNJ and the LV.

The Constables' Hook RR was built in 1883 as a branch from 22nd Street, Bayonne, to serve the industries in that city. The Middle Brook RR was built in 1900 to connect the main line at Bound Brook Jct. with the Chimney Rock quarry. Other industries have located on this branch.

The Perth Amboy and Elizabeth RR Co. began construction in 1871. The Central took over this line in 1873 and completed its construction. It connects the New York and Long Branch RR at Perth Amboy with the Central's main line at Elizabethport.

The Sound Shore Railroad led a sort of chicken and egg existence during its early days. Parts of it had been constructed by the Jersey Central before the Sound Shore incorporation; other sections were completed in 1895-6. It connects with the PA&SE at Bayway.

The Carteret extension was built in 1889 from East Rahway (now West Carteret) to Carteret and the industries located there. The Carteret and Sewaren, built in 1891, extends this branch to the creosoting plant (tie plant) at Port Reading. The Sound Shore RR connected with these lines at Carteret. In 1905, the New Jersey Terminal RR became an adjunct of these branches, operated by the Jersey Central. It had been constructed in 1902 and operated independently until acquisition, when its locomotives and cars were sold.

The Raritan North Shore, built in 1894-5-6, is an industrial branch in Perth Amboy. The High Bridge RR was opened for operation in April, 1876 from a connection with the main line at Bridge to Chester. The objective was Hacklebarney Mine and Chester Furnace. The Middle Valley RR was opened in 1897 to a stone quarry. The Longwood Valley RR was completed in 1876 from a connection with the High Bridge RR at German Valley (Long Valley) to Port Oram (Wharton).

The Dover and Rockaway RR was constructed from Port Oram to Rockaway in 1881 to connect with the Hibernia Mine RR. The latter had been put into use in 1863 and operated by its own organization until leased to the CRR of NJ on Oct. 1, 1890. At that time the entire line from High Bridge to Hibernia became the High Bridge branch (not a corporate title).

The Ogden Mine RR was completed in 1866 from Ogden Mine in Sparta Township (Edison) to a connection with the Morris Canal at Lake Hopatcong. Operation was by its own management until Dec. 31,1881, from which date it was operated by the Central.

The Lake Hopatcong RR was constructed in 1882 and operated by the Central between Hopatcong Junction on the High Bridge branch and connection with the Ogden Mine RR at Lake Hopatcong. These lines, connected end to end, became the Ogden Mine branch.

The lines are still in operation except portions shown in the following notes:
The New Jersey Turnpike cut the right-of-way of the Elizabeth Extension near its connection with the Newark and Elizabeth branch. This portion of the track was taken up and a connection made from the opposite end to the Elizabethport yard. In recent years, this has been developed to serve several large revenue-producing industries.

That part of the Newark and New York branch between West Side Ave. and Kearny, including the Hackensack River bridge, has been taken up. The Rahway River drawbridge of the Sound Shore branch is no longer used, virtually cutting this line into two section s. The remote section and the New Jersey Terminal branch are reached via the Carteret Extension and its connection with the Perth Amboy & Elizabeth branch at West Carteret (formerly East Rahway). With construction of the N.J. Turnpike, the Reformatory section of the N.J. Terminal became isolated. Connection was then made directly with PA&E branch at West Carteret.

The Middle Valley branch was abandoned many years ago when commercial lime became available. The Ogden Mine branch was little used since the mines, natural ice, and the Lake Hopatcong excursions were discontinued. It was removed during World War II except for the short piece between Hopatcong Jct. and Morris County Jct.

The Hibernia Mine RR was torn up at about the same time except for a small portion in the industrial section of Rockaway. The Chester branch was abandoned in April, 1962.

All of the foregoing roads were built by and/or acquired by the Central by purchase or lease and are operated as the Central Division.

The following two roads are owned subsidiaries, operated as branches of the Central Division but separately accounted. Each had operated under its own management prior to February, 1930, when they came into the Jersey Central family:
The Mount Hope mineral RR from a connection with the High Bridge branch at Wharton to the Mount Hope Mine. The Wharton and Northern RR from Morris County Jct. to Green Pond Jct. near Charlottesburg on the Susquehanna RR. A branch from Wharton Jct. to Wharton was abandoned during the war. Parts of this property had previously been operated as the Green Pond RR, Morris County RR and the Wharton Steel Co., becoming the W&NRR in 1917.

THE NEW JERSEY SOUTHERN DIVISION

The NJS Division was made a part of the Central Division early in 1961 and is now operated as such. This, too, is composed of several smaller lines, some of which had operated independently before coming into the fold. It is interesting to note here that one of these lines was in the state of Delaware with a marine operation across Delaware Bay connecting it with the 'Main Stem'.

This was discontinued after a few years in favor of the all-rail route of the Reading and B&O connection at Bound Brook Jct. This, in spite of heavy traffic for many years, has made the NJS mainly a branch line operation. Early traffic was mostly agricultural; today it is largely industrial.

The only track connection with the old Central Division is by trackage of the New York and Long Branch RR. Junctions with the latter are at Matawan, Branchport and Red Bank.

Before the NY&LB was opened, the New York connection was made by boat. In later years this developed into the Sandy Hook Line which operated only during the summer seasons.

The nucleus of the NJS was the Raritan and Delaware Bay RR which was constructed in sections. Completion of these parts came during 1860 through 1866. Obviously, the original intent was traffic between New York and Philadelphia. The topography of the route is relatively flat and is composed mostly of farm lands and pine barrens. Little earth-removal was needed and the only major river-crossing was the Navesink, near Red Bank. The road between Port Monmouth and Bergen Iron Works (now Lakewood) was opened in 1860,Eatontown to Long Branch in 1860, Lakewood to Atsion in 1862 and Manchester (now Lakehurst) to Toms River in 1866. A branch of the Camden & Atlantic RR, from Atsion to Atco, was purchased in 1869 and service was established to Camden.

The Vineland Ry, was opened from Atsion to Vineland in 1870 and from Vineland to Bayside in 1871. It was operated by its own organization. From meager records available to us, it appears the name was changed in 1880 to Vineland RR through reorganization.

The Long Branch and Sea Shore RR was constructed from Long Branch to Spermacite Cove on Sandy Hook in 1865, extended to Horse Shoe Cove in 1870, and was operated by its own company.

Due to many financial disruptions and the resulting failures and reorganizations of that time, records of constructing the Freehold & Atlantic Highlands RR are rather involved. About a dozen predecessor companies were involved in constructing and organizing the 22-mile route between the two towns. For the sake of brevity,opening dates of the several sections were: Freehold to Matawan,1877; Matawan to Keyport, 1880; Keyport to Keyport Pier, 1881 by Freehold and New York RR with boat connection to New York. In 1883, the New York and Atlantic Highlands RR constructed the road from Atlantic Highlands to Belford. This road was leased to the NJS in 1883. The two roads connected at Belford, and later an extension was built to Keyport.

Steamboat connections with New York were operated from Keyport,Port Monmouth and Sandy Hook. These may properly be considered as forerunners of the 'Sandy Hook Route' which the Jersey Central later operated from Atlantic Highlands pier.

The Toms River RR Co., at this late date, appears to be one of the refinancing devices used during the readjustment period following the Civil War. Its property was the Toms River Branch of the NJS purchased in 1881. It was controlled by the Jersey Central and operated as part of the NJS. This branch was extended by the Toms River and Waretown RR Co. in 1872 which was then operated by the NJS. Title to this extension went to Ralph B. Gowdy and others in 1875. These were, most likely, contractors unpaid for the construction work who, in 1879, extended the road to Barnegat. In 1893, the Toms River & Barnegat RR Co. purchased this property with operation continuing as part of the NJS.

The Bridgeton and Port Norris RR Co. built the road from Bridgeton to Bivalve in 1872 and operated it until 1874. The Cumberland and Maurice River RR Co. then bought the property and operated it until the end of 1889 when the CNJ took over its operation. The Cumberland and Maurice River Extension RR Co. built a line between Bridgeton and Bridgeton Jct. which has been operated by the Central since its completion in 1887. The West End RR Co. built a line from East Long Branch (on the LB&SSRR) to West End (on the NY&LBRR)in 1878. This was operated by the Jersey Central.

The Vineland Branch RR Co. built from Bowentown to Bridgeton in 1910, which line was operated by the Central.

These roads, when taken over by the Central, became parts of an integrated system. Ownership of capital stock effected control of the NJS in Sept., 1879. Likewise, the Central has operated the C&MR since Jan., 1886, and the F&NY since Jan., 1890. Through connections with the NY&LB road, all-rail service to Jersey City became available from all of these South Jersey roads. It should be further acted that a similar connection was also facilitated between the Pennsylvania RR and its acquired roads in Sou th Jersey.

The Baltimore and Delaware Bay RR, in Delaware and Maryland, was formed in 1881, by reorganizing the Kent County RR and its owned subsidiary, the Smyrna and Delaware Bay RR, which were operated by the New Jersey Southern RR. The CRR of NJ operated this line until May, 1889. From this date it operated in its own right, with the CNJ retaining a controlling interest, until June, 1901, when it was acquired by the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore RR (PRR).

NEW YORK AND LONG BRANCH RAILROAD

The New York and Long Branch Railroad has no equipment. The CNJ and PRR have trackage rights and run their trains over this entire property. The main line extends from Perth Amboy to Sea Girt and from Sea Girt to Bay Head Jct. These sections are connect ed by trackage rights over a short section of the Freehold and Jamesburg Agricultural RR. This plus one and three-quarter miles of the Jersey Central's E&PA branch in Perth Amboy are operated by NY&LB time table and dispatchers. Construction was as follows:

Perth Amboy to Long Branch in 1875 by NY&LB RR Co.; Long Branch to Belmar in 1876 by New Eqypt and Farmingdale RR Co. Belmar to Sea Girt in 1876 by Long Branch & Sea Girt Sea Girt to Point Pleasant in 1880 by NY&LB Extension RR Co. Point Pleasant to Bay Head Jet in 1881 by LB & Barnegat Bay RR Co.; All of the above were merged into NY&LBRR on Dec. 20, 1881.

LEHIGH AND SUSQUEHANNA DIVISION

The Lehigh and Susquehanna Division originated as a railroad of that name built and operated by the Lehigh Coal and Navigation Co. It was leased in 1871 to the Central Railroad of New Jersey, which has operated it as its L&S Division and now as its Pennsylvania Division.

Previous to the railroads, canals had been the main avenues of transportation. Some of the early railroads were projected over mountains as extensions to, or connections between, canals. The L&S was at first in this category. An act of the Pennsylvania Legislature in 1837 authorized construction of a railroad to connect the Pennsylvania Canal's North Branch with the slack-water navigation of the Lehigh Canal. Construction of the road between Ashley and South Wilkes-Barre, White Haven and Solomons Gap and the Ashley Planes in 1843 fulfilled this original intention. The advantages of railroad transportation became apparent. Ice interrupted canal operation and floods in the river valley damaged the canal installations so that extension of the railroad was the only feasible solution.

The L&S also includes the Lehigh and Delaware Water Gap RR and the Nanticoke RR (formerly Wilkes-Barre and Scranton RR (name changed in 1860), both of which merged in 1867. These roads were completed by the LC&N Co. after mergers.

Completion of main line sections was effected in the years shown below: Ashley to South WilkesİBarre, 1843; White Haven to Solomons Gap, 1843; Mauch Chunk to White Haven, 1866; Solomons Gap to Ashley (Back Track), 1866; Union Jct., 1867; Mauch Chunk to Phillipsburg, 1868;

The above sections are main line. The branches follow: (Note the Ashley Planes were part of the original main line but upon completion of the Back Track they assumed branch line status.)

Ashley Planes branch, 1843; Lee Mine branch, 1862; Manticoke branch (Gardner's Switch to Wanamie),1862, (Wanamie to Lee),1885; Canal branch (Miner's Mills to Enterprise Breaker), 1862, (Enterprise Breaker to Plains Jct.), 1896; Upper Lehigh branch, 1867; Everhart branch, 1867; North Penn. Connection (South Bethlehem), 1867; Coplay branch, 1870; Carbon branch, 1873; Sandy Run branch, 1875; Drifton branch, 1876; Allen Cement branch, 1888; Standard Cement Branch 1892; Buttonwood branch, 1894; The Easton and Western was constructed in 1914-1915. It is controlled by the CNJ through ownership of its entire outstanding capital stock. Operation has been as a part of the Jersey Central since its completion.

The Tresckow Railroad is not directly connected with the Jersey Central. Trackage rights over the Reading from Tamanend constitute the physical connection. This road was built from Silver Springs to Audenried and put in operation in 1870. It is control led by the LC&N Co. through stock ownership and was operated by that company from completion until it was leased to the CNJ in 1871.

The Wilkes-Barre and Scranton (not to be confused with WB&S RR Co. which became the Nanticoke RR Co. in 1860) was completed and put into operation in 1888. Its road ran between Pittstown and Scranton. Operation since that time has been by the Jersey Central. The LC&N owns the entire outstanding capital stock, leased the property, and assigned the lease to CRRofNJ.

The Nesquehoning Valley RR began construction in 1861 and completed its line between Nesquehoning Jct. (Mauch Chunk) and Tamanend in 1870. The tunnel between Hauto and Lansford was completed in 1872. The property is controlled by the LC&N Co. through own ership of a majority of its outstanding capital stock. Operation by the LC&N started upon completion. This road also came under Jersey Central operation by lease in 1871 except for the tunnel which was subleased to the Lehigh and New England RR Co. Sev eral other LC&N properties became parts of the L&NE but, more on that later.

The Allentown Terminal RR qas constructed in 1888 and 1889 from which time it has been operated jointly by the Jersey Central and Philadelphia and Reading (Reading). The LC&N and CNJ own nearly all the shares of outstanding stock. It forms the physical entrance to Allentown proper for both operating companies.

LEHIGH AND NEW ENGLAND RAILWAY

The Lehigh and New England RY. is an owned subsidiary of the Jersey Central. It is composed of branches of the former Lehigh & New England RR serving the remaining traffic-producing industries at the time, in 1961, that ICC permission was granted to the latter-named road to abandon its operation. These branches extend from Bethlehem to Allentown northside and Martin's Creek and from Hauto to Tamaqua. The former serves the cement mills and the latter serves the remaining anthracite mines of the Panther Valley. Current rumors are that some other small segments may be kept in operation by interested parties and connected with other railroads.

It may be of interest to note at this point that the branch from Bethlehem is a part of the Lehigh & Lackawanna, an LC&N property,which was leased to and operated by CNJ from 1871 to 1905. TheHauto-Tamaqua section is the Panther Creek RR, another LC&N pr operty.

The Bronx Terminal in New York City has been operated on leased property along the Harlem River since 1905. Its physical connection is via car float to Jersey City. Operations at this once busy freight terminal have now been abandoned.
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